intybus): "and they shall
eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread, and with
bitter herbs they shall eat it." Exodus
Bitter Herbs are mentioned often in the Bible. Considering the
quality of their food, these digestive aids were probably very necessary for
good intestinal bacteria and health. It is thought, by the interpreters of the
Bible, that many herbs were used in this manner, including dandelion and sorrel.
Chicory, with its cornflower blue flowers, can be used many ways. The
young leaves are excellent in salad. They can be steamed or blanched and used as
greens by themselves or with other nutritious green leaves. The root can be can
be ground and added to coffee.
LEMON GRASS (Cymbopogon citratus):
“Take thou also unto thee principal spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus two hundred and fifty shekels,”
Sweet smelling Calamus refers to the many aromatic grasses found growing in abundance in the Holy Land, of which Lemon Grass is one. In this scripture the Lord delivers instructions to Moses for the proper way to make and use Holy Oil. So valued was this oil that perfume was not even to be made in the same way.
Lemon Grass is an essential ingredient in many Asian dishes. After a good size clump of Lemon Grass has developed, pieces can be broken off at the base of the clump for cooking. The white fleshy part at the base of the reed is the part that gives a sharp lemon tang to soups and stir fry. It is a tender plant and should be protected or brought in where winters go below
GREEK BAY (Laurel
nobilis): "I have seen the
wicked in great power, and spreading himself like a green bay tree."
Psalms 37: 35
Evergreen, sturdy and fragrant; surely these were contributing
factors to the greatness bestowed on Bay throughout history. David assigned the
virtue of prosperity to the tree. This meaning
has transferred itself to our present society with the conferring of a BA degree
or a Baccalaureate degree. Even so, we no longer value Bay as a headdress or as
a symbol. It is the spicy aroma and pungent flavor we love today. Bay is hardy
only to about 15 degrees, but it is not too difficult to grow it in a pot.
Even though in the Mediterranean,
Bay may grow 40 or 50 feet, it takes a very long time to do so here in the
United States, making it a suitable container plant. Leave the pot
outside during summer and bring it inside for the winter. It is well worth whatever effort it takes to have this shrub
contributing to our herb gardens, and our kitchen tables.
EGYPTIAN MINT (Mentha niliaca):
“But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over
judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.”
That Mint was tithed at all shows the value the Pharisees placed upon this herb. Imagine determining what one tenth of your mint crop
was! Mint was valued for its fresh aroma and sweet taste and often used to flavor meat.
Also an important “strewing” herb, mint stems were hung in doorways and thrown on dirt floors to mask the effects of inadequate sanitation.
Scholars disagree on which mint was actually the mint of the Bible, but this is
a nice one from the same region. There were probably many mints then as there
are today. It freely crosses and produces great differences from this wild
DWARF SWEET MYRTLE (Myrtus communis compacta): “Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree.”
The symbol of divine generosity. According to one interpretation when “Adam was expelled from Paradise he was allowed to take with him wheat, chief of foods,; the date, chief of fruits; and the myrtle, chief of scented flowers”. The bark and roots are used to tan the finest Turkish and Russian leather to which it imparts a delicate scent. The Myrtle variety included in your garden is a dwarf suitable for hedges, topiaries and containers.
SYRIAN OREGANO (Origanum maru):
“Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.” Psalms 51:7.
Because common Hyssop
(Hyssopus officinalis) is not native to the Mediterranean area, much debate has ensued over which plant was referred to as Hyssop. It may have even been several different plants used for different and varied purposes.
Syrian Oregano however seems to most adequately fill many of the references to hyssop found in the bible. It was often gathered in bunches and used as a brush or sprinkler for purification rituals. It was surely enjoyed, as it is today, for its excellent flavor. It is still widely used in the Middle East as an ingredient in the spice blend
Zatar. It has one of the strongest tastes of all the Oreganos and can be used fresh or dried on pizza, eggs,
baked in bread or cooked in sauces.
Adam, Cain, Luke, Solomon and Paul, these were only a few of the biblical
gardeners. In the Bible, they discuss grafting and root stock and the proper way
of taking cuttings. Sounds a lot like what we struggle with and strive to
Additional Plants for the Biblical Herb Garden: Capers, Cistus, Dill, Rue and